羅馬書 1:16 我不以福音為恥;這福音本是上帝的大能,要救一切相信的,先是猶太人,後是希臘人。17 因為上帝的義正在這福音上顯明出來;這義是本於信,以至於信。如經上所記:「義人必因信得生。」

Romans 1:16–17 (ESV): 16 For I am not ashamed of the gospel, for it is the power of God for salvation to everyone who believes, to the Jew first and also to the Greek. 17 For in it the righteousness of God is revealed from faith for faith, as it is written, “The righteous shall live by faith.”

I. 神的義是什麼?What is God’s righteousness?

A. 在聖經中大概有三個解釋 3 explanations:

1. 神的屬性。神是聖潔,公義。God’s nature/attributes. God is holy and righteous.

2. 神所完成的工作是公義的,公義的行為。God’s work and actions are righteous.

3. 神所賜給我們的禮物。Forensic, 法庭上的宣判,法庭上的地位。It is a gift from God to us. It is a forensic status of justification in the court of law.

B. 羅馬書所講的「神的義」,是神給我們的義,是從神而來的義。是希臘文的 Objective Genetive。 或是,是包含了這三種的定義之結合,上帝把祂自己的本性,藉著信耶穌給了我們,使我們得到法庭上的合法地位。

1. “These options are neither exhaustive nor mutually exclusive, and two or more of them are often combined in the interpretation of 1:17.” Douglas Moo, P.72)

2. “A particular attractive and popular combination is that found in the interpretation of Kasemann. He argues that “God’s righteousness” is “God’s salvation-creating power, a concept that incorporates the ideas of status given by God and activity exercised by God—with the emphasis on the latter—and the addition of nuances such as God’s reclaiming of creation for his lordship.” (Moo, p. 72)

C. Ok,聽不懂。哈,牧師,這個很重要嗎?好吧,我們來看一節經文,是耶穌說的。保羅寫一整本羅馬書,想要解釋這個神的義:

1. 馬太福音 6:31 所以,不要憂慮說,吃甚麼?喝甚麼?穿甚麼?32 這都是外邦人所求的。你們需用的這一切東西,你們的天父是知道的。33 你們要先求他的國和他的義,這些東西都要加給你們了。Matthew 6:31–33 (ESV): 31 Therefore do not be anxious, saying, ‘What shall we eat?’ or ‘What shall we drink?’ or ‘What shall we wear?’ 32 For the Gentiles seek after all these things, and your heavenly Father knows that you need them all. 33 But seek first the kingdom of God and his righteousness, and all these things will be added to you.

2. 先求神的國,和神的義,這些東西都要加給你們了。這下你知道為什麼要講這個了吧?

3. 當你想到求神的國,神的義,你想到什麼?多在教會事奉一些?然後做好人?是吧?禮拜天來教會,當同工,幫忙廚房,幫忙打掃,領詩歌,帶查經。這就是求神的國吧?然後,禮拜一回家後,盡量做好人?然後主怎麼還不把這一切所有的都加給我呢?好像有一點上當了?問題出在哪裡?出在我們不太清楚什麼是求神的國,神的義。

4. 神的義是神的本性,神自己,神所賜的禮物和地位,怎麼求?

II. 這邊出現了一個問題:神的義不是我要做好人。神的義不是人的義。什麼是人的義?就是做好人,做善事。所以,你如果做善事,並沒有求神的義。保羅解釋人的義:

A. 羅馬書 9:31 但以色列人追求律法的義,反得不著律法的義。32 這是甚麼緣故呢?是因為他們不憑著信心求,只憑著行為求;他們正跌在那絆腳石上。Romans 9:31–32 (ESV): 31 but that Israel who pursued a law that would lead to righteousness did not succeed in reaching that law. 32 Why? Because they did not pursue it by faith, but as if it were based on works. They have stumbled over the stumbling stone,

B. 羅馬書 10:1 弟兄們,我心裏所願的,向上帝所求的,是要以色列人得救。2 我可以證明,他們向上帝有熱心,但不是按著真知識;3 因為不知道上帝的義,想要立自己的義,就不服上帝的義了。4 律法的總結就是基督,使凡信他的都得著義。Romans 10:1–4 (ESV): Brothers, my heart’s desire and prayer to God for them is that they may be saved. 2 For I bear them witness that they have a zeal for God, but not according to knowledge. 3 For, being ignorant of the righteousness of God, and seeking to establish their own, they did not submit to God’s righteousness. 4 For Christ is the end of the law for righteousness to everyone who believes.

C. OK,所以神的義是祂的本體,是祂的屬性,是祂給的禮物,那麼我們行律法的義,追求做好人好事,又有什麼衝突?有什麼錯?

D. 好問題!我們再來看神的義和人的義這兩者之間的差異為何。保羅為了要說明神的義,他在羅馬書用了許多的比喻,我們只看三個比喻:

1. 銀行轉帳的比喻。神的義,如同一大筆錢轉帳到你的帳戶。把你的貧窮一掃而盡。

a) 羅馬書4:3 經上說甚麼呢?說:「亞伯拉罕信上帝,這就算為他的義。」4 做工的得工價,不算恩典,乃是該得的;5 惟有不做工的,只信稱罪人為義的上帝,他的信就算為義。Romans 4:3–5 (ESV): 3 For what does the Scripture say? “Abraham believed God, and it was counted to him as righteousness.” 4 Now to the one who works, his wages are not counted as a gift but as his due. 5 And to the one who does not work but believes in him who justifies the ungodly, his faith is counted as righteousness,

b) 『算為』他的義。這裡原文是accounting,會計用辭。

c) 神的義是真正的禮物。要進天堂的門票太貴了,你永遠賺不到。要進天堂所需要的公義是完美的公義,完美的好人,你做不到,你付不出,上帝因著你信,直接轉帳給你。

d) 人的義,是每天去上班賺的錢,入不敷出,僅僅夠生活,怎麼可能拿來進天國用?就像一個窮人,打工賺錢只夠溫飽,怎麼可能去阿爾卑斯山滑雪,怎麼可能去海邊度假?你想要靠你做的一點好事來進天國?你做夢吧!

2. 輸血的比喻。

a) 羅馬書 6: 3 豈不知我們這受洗歸入基督耶穌的人是受洗歸入他的死嗎?4 所以,我們藉著洗禮歸入死,和他一同埋葬,原是叫我們一舉一動有新生的樣式,像基督藉著父的榮耀從死裏復活一樣。5 我們若在他死的形狀上與他聯合,也要在他復活的形狀上與他聯合;Romans 6:3–5 (ESV): 3 Do you not know that all of us who have been baptized into Christ Jesus were baptized into his death? 4 We were buried therefore with him by baptism into death, in order that, just as Christ was raised from the dead by the glory of the Father, we too might walk in newness of life. 5 For if we have been united with him in a death like his, we shall certainly be united with him in a resurrection like his.

b) Ok,你說,哪裡有輸血?這裡是在講洗禮。我告訴你吧,若是保羅的年代醫學的技術能輸血,他就會用了。這裡是他用的最接近的比喻。輸送生命。

c) 當我們受洗時,我們與耶穌接上輸血管了,我們的生命與基督連上了。他死,我們也死,他復活,我們也復活。

d) 現代醫學的進步,在一個人受傷失血過多時,以前古代的醫生只能束手無策,宣告死亡。但今天的醫學可以輸血。美國現代戰爭傷兵死亡人數大幅下降,最主要的原因就是快速的輸血,立即的止血,血袋的血輸進去,命先保住,然後再立刻上飛機到德國手術,基本上不會死了。

e) 我們在犯罪時,也受到了致命傷,因為罪的代價就是死。我們都要死,逃不掉,要死的軍人這個時候做再多好事,吃再多沙拉,健康食品,通通沒用。要死的人,要的是另一個人的生命,另一個人的血。

f) 神的義,就是神的生命,就是血。約翰福音 6:53 耶穌說:「我實實在在地告訴你們,你們若不吃人子的肉,不喝人子的血,就沒有生命在你們裏面。54 吃我肉、喝我血的人就有永生,在末日我要叫他復活。55 我的肉真是可吃的,我的血真是可喝的。56 吃我肉、喝我血的人常在我裏面,我也常在他裏面。57 永活的父怎樣差我來,我又因父活著;照樣,吃我肉的人也要因我活著。58 這就是從天上降下來的糧。吃這糧的人就永遠活著,不像你們的祖宗吃過嗎哪還是死了。」John 6:52–58 (ESV): 53 So Jesus said to them, “Truly, truly, I say to you, unless you eat the flesh of the Son of Man and drink his blood, you have no life in you. 54 Whoever feeds on my flesh and drinks my blood has eternal life, and I will raise him up on the last day. 55 For my flesh is true food, and my blood is true drink. 56 Whoever feeds on my flesh and drinks my blood abides in me, and I in him. 57 As the living Father sent me, and I live because of the Father, so whoever feeds on me, he also will live because of me. 58 This is the bread that came down from heaven, not like the bread the fathers ate, and died. Whoever feeds on this bread will live forever.”

g) 一個人尋求自己的義,做善事的義,就像給死人吃維生素,給死人吃organic健康食品,怎麼可能救活自己呢?

3. 聖靈內住,來比喻神的義降臨在信他的人身上。

a) 羅馬書 8: 3 律法既因肉體軟弱,有所不能行的,上帝就差遣自己的兒子,成為罪身的形狀,作了贖罪祭,在肉體中定了罪案,4 使律法的義成就在我們這不隨從肉體、只隨從聖靈的人身上。 9 如果上帝的靈住在你們心裏,你們就不屬肉體,乃屬聖靈了。人若沒有基督的靈,就不是屬基督的。16 聖靈與我們的心同證我們是上帝的兒女;17 既是兒女,便是後嗣,就是上帝的後嗣,和基督同作後嗣。Romans 8:3 For God has done what the law, weakened by the flesh, could not do. By sending his own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh and for sin, he condemned sin in the flesh, 4 in order that the righteous requirement of the law might be fulfilled in us, who walk not according to the flesh but according to the Spirit. 9 You, however, are not in the flesh but in the Spirit, if in fact the Spirit of God dwells in you. Anyone who does not have the Spirit of Christ does not belong to him. 16 The Spirit himself bears witness with our spirit that we are children of God, 17 and if children, then heirs—heirs of God and fellow heirs with Christ, provided we suffer with him in order that we may also be glorified with him.

b) 神的聖靈住在你身上,你就是神的孩子。請問聖靈要用多少的善事才能換來?用多少錢買聖靈住在你身上一天?問這樣問題的人是完全的無知,極大的不敬!

c) 你要進天堂,你要神的義,你要這一切都加給你,若沒有聖靈,你什麼都沒有!

E. 因此,求神的國,神的義,絕對不是做好事,而是要得到神自己,得到耶穌所輸的血,得到他轉給你的錢。這是羅馬書三個重要的比喻,來比喻神的義。

F. 也因此,聖經對於人要用自己的善行進天國給予極大的批評。

1. 馬太福音 5:20 我告訴你們,你們的義若不勝於文士和法利賽人的義,斷不能進天國。」Matthew 5:20 For I tell you, unless your righteousness exceeds that of the scribes and Pharisees, you will never enter the kingdom of heaven.

2. 文士,法利賽人,都是盡一切所能行善的人,耶穌說,你要進天國嗎?你要比他更好。他做的,是給死人吃維生素。想進天國?你需要生命,不是維生素。

3. 申命記 9:4 「耶和華-你的上帝將這些國民從你面前攆出以後,你心裏不可說:『 耶和華將我領進來得這地是因我的義。』其實,耶和華將他們從你面前趕出去是因他們的惡。5 你進去得他們的地,並不是因你的義,也不是因你心裏正直,乃是因這些國民的惡,耶和華-你的上帝將他們從你面前趕出去,又因耶和華要堅定他向你列祖亞伯拉罕、以撒、雅各起誓所應許的話。6 「你當知道,耶和華-你上帝將這美地賜你為業,並不是因你的義;你本是硬著頸項的百姓。7 你當記念不忘,你在曠野怎樣惹耶和華-你上帝發怒。自從你出了埃及地的那日,直到你們來到這地方,你們時常悖逆耶和華。8 你們在何烈山又惹耶和華發怒;他惱怒你們,要滅絕你們。Deuteronomy 9:4 “Do not say in your heart, after the Lord your God has thrust them out before you, ‘It is because of my righteousness that the Lord has brought me in to possess this land,’ whereas it is because of the wickedness of these nations that the Lord is driving them out before you. 5 Not because of your righteousness or the uprightness of your heart are you going in to possess their land, but because of the wickedness of these nations the Lord your God is driving them out from before you, and that he may confirm the word that the Lord swore to your fathers, to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob. 6 “Know, therefore, that the Lord your God is not giving you this good land to possess because of your righteousness, for you are a stubborn people. 7 Remember and do not forget how you provoked the Lord your God to wrath in the wilderness. From the day you came out of the land of Egypt until you came to this place, you have been rebellious against the Lord. 8 Even at Horeb you provoked the Lord to wrath, and the Lord was so angry with you that he was ready to destroy you.

G. 所以,回到剛剛的問題,那麼我們行律法的義,追求做好人好事,又有什麼衝突?有什麼錯?

1. 人的義,在轉帳的比喻裡,問題就在它不足,太不足了。

2. 人的義,在輸血的比喻裡,問題就在於它完全沒有生命,一個要死的人做好事有什麼用?若不是生命進入你的身體裡,做好事能怎麼樣?這是一個極愚蠢的方法。做好事怎麼救命啊?

3. 人的義,在聖靈內住的比喻裡,發現你不能買聖靈啊!

III. 神的義,怎麼求?保羅解釋了:17 『因為上帝的義正在這福音上顯明出來;這義是本於信,以至於信。如經上所記:「義人必因信得生。」』因信而得神的義。用信心求。Romans 1:17 For in it the righteousness of God is revealed from faith for faith, as it is written, “The righteous shall live by faith.”

A. 羅馬書 3:21 但如今,上帝的義在律法以外已經顯明出來,有律法和先知為證:22 就是上帝的義,因信耶穌基督加給一切相信的人,並沒有分別。Romans 3:21 But now the righteousness of God has been manifested apart from the law, although the Law and the Prophets bear witness to it— 22 the righteousness of God through faith in Jesus Christ for all who believe.

B. 腓立比書 3:9 並且得以在他裏面,不是有自己因律法而得的義,乃是有信基督的義,就是因信上帝而來的義,Philippians 3:9 (ESV): 9 and be found in him, not having a righteousness of my own that comes from the law, but that which comes through faith in Christ, the righteousness from God that depends on faith

C. 哥林多後書 5:21 上帝使那無罪的,替我們成為罪,好叫我們在他裏面成為上帝的義。2 Corinthians 5:21 For our sake he made him to be sin who knew no sin, so that in him we might become the righteousness of God.

D. 要得到神的義,就要用信心。今天不能談太多關於信心的問題,這裡最主要的描述,就是這信心是持續下去的。不是一時信,後來就不信了。

E. 是本於信心,從信心為起點,然後繼續信下去。20年,30年,50年,一直信到你死,復活,見主面為止,那時候,信心就成了眼見,就不必信了,而親眼見主了。那時候,信心失去功能了,盼望失業了,只有愛繼續下去,直到永遠。

F. 所以,基督徒怎麼求神的國,神的義?簡單的總結,就是對神的國家的效忠,和用信心來接受神的禮物。

G. 怎麼效忠神的國?忠誠,faithfulness,loyal. 只為一個國家而活。每天的生活,為主的國家而活,做忠心的僕人。

1. 你是在家帶孩子的母親嗎?你為主耶穌把孩子帶大。將來有一個年輕的姊妹,也在家帶孩子,妳就成為她的輔導,妳開始在社區裡認識了另一群在家帶孩子帶婦女,妳跟他們傳福音,用生命的見證傳。

2. 你是父親,你是上班的,或是教授,或是開餐館,賣奶茶,你做什麼,都為了你的國家而做,而你的國家,不是美國,不是中國,而是天國。

3. 你的孩子的教育,是為了天國教育他,使他長大能在教會做棟樑,做傳道人,做長老,做執事,帶領青少年團契,他的品格,他的神學,他的教理問答,都能成為下一代的教會領袖。兒子能愛一個女孩,對她忠誠,做好的丈夫。女孩能嫁給一個好的弟兄,與他配搭為主而活。至於他在哪裡上班,賺多少錢,那是其次。

4. 這時候,你的眼睛會看見,這一切都加給你了。你是富足的,你的財富超過金錢,你不會窮的只剩下錢。

我們來禱告

回憶詩歌

十字架

1. 求主使我近十架,在彼有生命水,

由各各他山流下,白白賜人洗罪。

2.我與主同釘十架,和祂同葬同活,

今基督居住我心,不再是我活著。

3.我立志不傳別的,只傳耶穌基督,

並祂為我釘十架,復活作救贖主。

4.我願意別無所誇,只誇救主十架,

世界對我已釘死,我以死對待它。

〈副歌〉

十字架,十字架,永是我的榮耀!

我眾罪都洗清潔,惟靠耶穌寶血。